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After 9/11, the Bush administration set up a terrorist surveillance program that allowed the NSA to run warrantless surveillance on any electronic communications, including phones and emails, in which one party was believed to reside offshore. An executive order was all that was required. After much controversy, Bush admitted to violating the warrant requirement of the Fourth Amendment to the US Constitution. Afterwards, Bush circumvented a court mandate requiring warrants, with a stopgap measure and gave retroactive immunity to Verizon, AT&T, and Qwest for eavesdropping on Americans.