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Gottfried Leibniz

Leibniz (1646-1716) was a mathematician and philosopher whose greatest contribution to history was calculus, which he developed independently, alongside Newton. As a philosopher, Leibniz was a Rationalist along Carteisan lines, arguing metaphysics from a priori grounds, including the existence of God. His best-known contribution to philosophy is a sort of theistic optimism: the universe we inhabit must be the best of all possible worlds because it was created by God, and he would have chosen the create the best one logically possible. Leibniz believed that rationality and faith could (and must) be reconciled, because God ultimately created our reasoning faculties.