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Plato

Plato (428-347 BC), a student of Socrates, is probably the most recognized philosopher of all time. He made great contributors to metaphysics, logic, science, ethics, and political theory. His best-know work is the Republic, where it lays out a blueprint for the ideal society, lead by the essence-seeing philosopher-king. Plato proposed, along Rationalist lines, that truth lay in abstract forms, not in the particular instances of objects we see around us every day. He also lay the groundwork for epistemology (the study of knowledge) by defining knowledge as true, justified belief.