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Largest Explosions in the Universe

Who isn't curious enough to find out what the largest explosions in the universe are?

Largest Explosions in the Universe

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Big Bang

Big Bang

The Big Bang was the event which led to the formation of the universe, according to the prevailing cosmological theory of the universe's early development (known as the Big Bang theory). According to the Big Bang model, the universe, originally in an extremely hot and dense state that expanded rapidly, has since cooled by expanding to the present diluted state, and continues to expand today. Based on the best available measurements as of 2010, the original state of the universe existed around 13.7 billion years ago, which is often referred to as the time when the Big Bang occurred. The earliest phases of the Big Bang are subject to much speculation. In the most common models, the Universe was filled homogeneously and isotropically with an incredibly high energy density, huge temperatures and pressures, and was very rapidly expanding and cooling. Approximately 10^-37 seconds into the expansion, a phase transition caused a cosmic inflation, during which the Universe grew exponentially. Temperatures were so high that the random motions of particles were at relativistic speeds, and particle-antiparticle pairs of all kinds were being continuously created and destroyed in collisions

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Gamma-ray Burst

Gamma-ray Burst

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays associated with extremely energetic explosions in distant galaxies. They are the most luminous electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe. Bursts can last from milliseconds to several minutes, although a typical burst lasts a few seconds. The sources of most GRBs are billions of light years away from Earth, implying that the explosions are both extremely energetic (a typical burst releases as much energy in a few seconds as the Sun will in its entire 10 billion year lifetime) and extremely rare (a few per galaxy per million years)

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Hypernova

Hypernova

The term came to be used to describe the supernovae of the most massive stars, the hypergiants, which have masses from 100 to over 300 times that of the Sun. Decaying 56Ni, a short-lived isotope of nickel, is believed to provide much of a hypernova's light. The core of a hypernova collapses directly into a black hole, and two extremely energetic jets of plasma are emitted from its rotational poles at nearly the speed of light. Since stars large enough to collapse directly into a black hole are quite rare, hypernovae would likewise be rare, if they indeed occur. It has been estimated that a hypernova would occur in our galaxy every 200 million years.

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Supernova Type II

Supernova Type II

Stars with at least nine solar masses of material evolve in a complex fashion. The core collapses in on itself with velocities reaching 70,000 km/s (0.23c) resulting in a rapid increase in temperature and density. The energy loss processes operating in the core cease to be in equilibrium. In a typical Type II supernova the newly formed neutron core has an initial temperature of about 100 billion kelvin (100 GK), 6000 times the temperature of the sun's core. About 10^46 joules of gravitational energy - approximately 10% of the star's rest mass - is converted into a ten-second burst of neutrinos, which is the main output of the event. These carry away energy from the core and accelerate the collapse, while some neutrinos are absorbed by the star's outer layers and provide energy to the supernova explosion. The inner core eventually reaches typically 30 km diameter, and a density comparable to that of an atomic nucleus, and further collapse is abruptly stopped by strong force interactions and by degeneracy pressure of neutrons.

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Supernova

Supernova

Supernovae are extremely luminous and cause a burst of radiation that often briefly outshines an entire galaxy, before fading from view over several weeks or months. The entire star explodes. No neutron star, no black hole, nothing left behind but an expanding cloud of newly radioactive material and empty space where once was the most massive item you can actually have without ripping space. The explosion alone triggers alchemy on a suprasolar scale, converting stars' worth of matter into new radioactive elements. While there is, on average, only one supernova per galaxy per century, there is something on the order of 100 billion galaxies in the observable Universe. By NASA calculations there are 1 billion supernovae per year, or 30 supernovae per second in the observable Universe!

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Nova

Nova

A nova is a cataclysmic nuclear explosion caused by the accretion of hydrogen on to the surface of a white dwarf star, which ignites and starts nuclear fusion in a runaway manner.

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