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David Hume

Hume (1711-1776), the first modern Empiricist, single-handedly lay the groundwork for modern philosophy of science. He claimed that all knowledge, and even meaning itself, stemmed from sense experience. And because the senses are our only connection to reality, we should only philosophize on matters verifiable by scientific method. Hume's mode of thought remains progressive to this day. He was an atheist and amoralist, famously arguing, "you can't derive an ought from an is."